# Electronic Stopping Power of Matter for Ions

## Introduction to Graphs and Data

- This collection of stopping power measurements includes data published as early as 1928 (data by Rosenblum, 1928),
and is continuously updated. All the files (figures, data) can be downloaded freely.
- Although the collection is large, it may not be complete.
- The stopping power shown in the graphs is the electronic stopping power.
The stopping power due to collisions between projectile and an entire atom ("nuclear" stopping power) is small, or has been subtracted by the authors.
- There are separate tables and graphs for
hydrogen ions, helium ions
and the heavier ions, Li to Ar ions and K to U ions.
There you can find the whole updated compilation and figures for each ion-target stopping power.
- Since 2016 every set of data published in international journals is compiled and plotted.
The data is available in ascii files that can be downloaded from the tables together with the corresponding graphs.
- Every symbol in the graphs corresponds to a data point;
the letters correspond to different publications as explained
here. The curves in the graphs have their own reference codes given
here.
- Figures are included as gif and as origin files, and both can be downloaded from this website.
The origin pictures are the sources for the gif ones, so by using the Origin plotting software you can open these files,
change scales and symbols, and get access to all the numerical values (measured points and curves).
- Not all the data in the database has been plotted yet. Some systems with only one or two sets of measurements compiled before 2016,
have not been plotted, although the data is included in the database. Work is in progress to provide plots for all the data.
The entire database can be downloaded here.
- For some heavy ions you can find universal plots, where all the data for the particular ion are shown on one graph.
These plots have been updated until 2015.
- There is a separate site on oscillations:
graphs showing the stopping power as a function of the atomic number of ion or target. From 2009
to 2015, tables of
**Optical Oscillator Strengths** have also been added for several elements.
There is also a separate site summarizing the statistical analyses
(the work by H. Paul and A. Schinner in 2001, 2003 and 2005).